Applying high - techniques for scientific research, diagnosis and service of social needs

I. Introduction to the Department of Molecular Biology – Immunology

The Department of Molecular Biology and Immunologist (DoMBI) is a unit of National Institute of Malariology – Parasitomology – Entomology Ho Chi Minh City (IMPE HCM) with the organizational structure including 03 main labs that have achieved Grade 2 biological safety: Lab of malaria parasite culture; Molecular biology Lab; Immune Lab.

With high - level human resources and good laboratory skills, it can be done in intensive techniques; with modern equipment, machinery such as: capillary power machine, Real time - PCR, system of ELISA auto, system of clonning cells... In order to apply and study science, the prevention of disease related to malaria parasites, dengue fever, insects and other parasitic parasites.

In the past time, with the leadership of the institute, DoMBI has completed technical procedures to ensure the quality of quality for the field of professional activities and the scientific and scientific services, faculty have implemented a number of service activities for the Unit In need.

II. Scientific research

Since DoMBI has been established to now, the department has implemented many highly capable topics in diagnosis, species identifier by molecular biology, and application of new techniques in the evaluation of drug testing in in vitro, in vivo, for the malaria parasite, such as topics: IFA, ELISA, WESTERN Blot,....

  • In 2007, DoMBI implemented the topic "Application of PCR for the detection of malaria parasites in children under 15 years old, Phuoc Long District, Binh Phuoc Province" with the results shows that P. falciparum occupies a high proportion (60.9%) in the structure of malaria parasite (MP) through the technique Nested - PCR and Giemsa dyeing technique. And next is P. vivax (34.8%), PCR is found to be more coordinated than Giemsa tech (10 patients vs. 5 patients). Through Neste - PCR there is the presence of P. Ovale in Bu Gia Map commune, Phuoc Long district, Binh Phuoc Province.
  • In 2010, DoMBI conducted the project "Identifying Pfcrt mutations at the K76T position in Plasmodium falciparum related to chloroquin drug resistance in a heavily endemic malaria area of Binh Phuoc province by PCR-RFLP technique", results in 31 samples collected were analyzed by PCR, 26 samples of P. falciparum, P. vivax 3 samples, and 2 samples infected with P. falciparum and P. vivax. Analysis Pfcrt chloroquine drug resistance gene at position 7, resulting in 26 samples of P. falciparum chloroquine - sensitive 9 samples, accounting for 34.6% and 17 rate with chloroquine - resistant samples, accounting for 65.4% rate.
  • In 2012, the first time we had received and used to Real-time PCR equipment, DoMBI carried out the project "Initial use of Real - time PCR technique compared with Nested - PCR technique in detecting and diagnosing Plasmodium spp. ”, with the results obtained when comparing 3 techniques in testing and identification of malaria parasites, Giemsa technique has detected 44 samples infected with P. falciparum, 27 samples infected with P. vivax, 2 samples infected P. falciparum and P. vivax, 327 samples were negative. Nested - PCR technique has detected 48 samples infected with P. falciparum, 25 samples infected with P. vivax, 6 samples infected with P. falciparum and P. vivax, and 321 samples were negative. And Real - time PCR technique detected 47 samples infected with P. falciparum, 24 samples infected with P. vivax, 8 samples infected P. falciparum and P. vivax, 321 samples were negative.

And in 2012, DoMBI approached the IFA technique and proceeded to implement the topic of "immuno response to P. falciparum in the community of malaria-heavy provinces of Binh Phuoc Province" with the results indicating the level of immuno - response to P. falciparum is in the communal community and compensates for fat in relation to gender, age and occupation.

  • In 2014, DoMBI applied PCR and sequencing techniques to implement the project "Application of Nested - PCR technique to identify mutation points on the gene K13 in P. falciparum in Bu Gia Map District, Binh Phuoc Province, in 2014". In the results of finding mutation points on the gene K13 related to artemisinin resistance, four mutant positions were found in 543, 553, 580 and 447. These results have not been able to confirm the parasite parasites in Bu Gia Map district was artemisinin-resistant, however, it partly shows the locations of mutation points on the K13 gene of patients living in areas of severe malaria endemic in Binh Phuoc province. Thereby, the part may examine and contribute to the study of artemisinin resistance based on molecular biology techniques.
  • In 2015, DoMBI performed molecular biology techniques to determine the genetic polymorphism on the P. falciparum MSP1 locus by PCR technique, showing that the proportion of K1 genotype accounted for 34.43%, identifying 5 variables allen. The MAD20 genotype accounts for 37.70%, identifying 6 allen variants. RO33 genotype accounted for 27.87%, identifying 2 allen variants.

Also this year, DoMBI has technical applications in LAMP identifiable species of tapeworm and has recorded 100% of the samples collected are designated as species T. saginata, the results showed no difference when identified by morphological (T. saginata is 68.75%, T. solium is 31.25%).

  • In 2017, DoMBI continued technical application LAMP in tests Plasmodium in malaria hypoendemic Binh Phuoc Province to detect patterns parasites collected in the field, the results positive rate accounted 4:43% compared 0.5% parasite detection by traditional methods.
  • In a study had done in 2015 - 2017, the IMPE HCM has used PCR, sequencing to identify several species of disease vectors, such as: ticks, chigger mites, mites; From the research results, the situation of molecular biology identification of vectors in Vietnam has not been applied much, so it has an overview to look for further studies in identifier genetics disease vector species in Vietnam.
  • In addition, DoMBI has succeeded in applying Western Blot technique in diagnosing patients infected with Toxocara canis to visit the specialized Parasitology clinic (unit of IMPE HCM) and compared with the results of Elisa technique, showing that Western Blot technique has higher specificity than ELISA technique. In addition, with the advantages of the Western Blot technique, it is possible to diagnose patients infected with Toxocara canis on other sample platforms such as blood, urine, saliva samples and make recommendations to apply Western Blot techniqueget performed at the Institute, proceeded to develop a standard procedure to serve for diagnostic testing of parasites.

With high quality and intelligence in scientific researches expressed in grassroots research projects, we are always highly appreciated. From the achieved results of the grassroots topics, the Department's research also contributes to the prevention of diseases, making recommendations for epidemiologists in areas such as malaria, diseases related to Plasmodium, dengue fever and other insect - spreading insects and parasites that cause disease in humans.

III. Disease prevention - cooperative implementation

Under the direction of the Leadership of IMPE HCM, DoBMI is improving the technical processes under the guidance of the Ministry of Health to ensure quality for the field of professional activities and services, and is also developing ISO 17025:2017. Therefore, in addtion to works of scientific researches, we applies molecular diagnosis techniques in the prevention of epidemics, diagnostic tests of parasitic diseases when have required, such as:

1. In the field of diagnostic tests

DoMBI has implemented PCR, Real-time PCR techniques in activities such as:

  • DoMBI has applied Real time PCR, LAMP, IFA techniques to test patient samples from people living in the malaria-endemic community of Binh Phuoc in 2018 when the malaria situation suddenly increased and assess the actual situation of malaria parasites in the locality.
  • Testing for malaria Plasmodium spp. on animals by PCR technology for companies and units in need
  • Identification and quantification of hepatitis B virus by real-time technical support for the treatment of hepatitis caused by the hepatitis B virus
  • Testing and identifying the causative agent of malaria and dengue fever for patients coming to the Parasit Specialist Clinic of the IMPE HCM

2. Evaluation of sensitivity - resistance of malaria parasites in invitro

In this field, DoMBI has supported and implemented evaluation services for companies and universities in specific fields such as:

  • Testing and evaluating the inhibitory effects of malaria parasite development of natural bioactive compounds from rattan in vitro
  • Testing and evaluating the inhibitory effect of malaria parasite development of natural substances with biological activity from cruciferous in in vitro
  • Test and evaluate the impact of drugs on malaria parasites (nano artemisinin) in vitro and in vivo
  • Perform extraction of natural bioactive compounds (extracts from rattan).

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